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I think you ignore the reference to Goodhart's law.
For this issue we don't compare different people in the same system who achieve different scores with each other.

There are certainly examples of people who achieve high success in their primary field despite spending a lot of time on outside interests.
It certainly possible to be successful without being innovative.

It's possible to be a great doctor without being innovative.

I think that Peter Thiels general argument, that new companies get started by people with a secret that they know but which other don't, is true. That secret doesn't has to be found outside of a field. It can also be found in an arcane subfield. On the other hand it won't be found in the material that get's tested in standardized tests.